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Comparative evaluation of the sealing ability of filling materials on root end cavities treated with smear layer removing agents: A confocal laser scanning microscopic study.

Shah DK, Sanap-Tandale A, Aggarwal S, Sengar E, Borkar A, Shetty S. Comparative evaluation of the sealing ability of filling materials on root end cavities treated with smear layer removing agents: A confocal laser scanning microscopic study. J Conserv Dent 2019;22:495-9
Aim: This study aims to evaluate and compare the sealing ability of Biodentine™ and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) plus® on root end cavities treated with 17% ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), 0.2% Chitosan and 1% Phytic acid using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM)-An in vitro study.

Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted single rooted teeth were instrumented and obturated with gutta-percha. The apical 3 mm of each tooth was resected and 3 mm root-end preparation was made using ultrasonic tip. 17% EDTA (n = 20), 0.2% Chitosan (n = 20) and 1% Phytic acid (n = 20) was used as a smear layer removing agent and each above group was further subdivided and restored with a root end filling material, Biodentine (n = 10) and MTA Plus (n = 10). The samples were coated with varnish except at the root end and after drying, they were immersed in Rhodamine B dye for 24 h. The teeth were then rinsed, sectioned longitudinally, and observed under CLSM.
Results: In the present study, MTA Plus® treated with 1% Phytic acid showed the least microleakage followed by Biodentine™ treated with 1% Phytic acid which was statistically not significant. MTA Plus® treated with 17% EDTA showed the highest microleakage when compared to other tested groups. There was a significant difference in microleakage between MTA Plus® and Biodentine™ when treated with 17% EDTA and 0.2% Chitosan. However, more microleakage was seen with Biodentine™ group than MTA plus® group.
Conclusion: Root end cavities restored with MTA plus and treated with Phyitc acid showed superior sealing ability. Furthermore, smear layer removing agents will aid in better adaptability of root end filling material.

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Does a new formula have an input in the clinical success of posterior composite restorations? A chat study

Clinical Oral Investigations (2020Abstract


To compare the clinical behavior of a universal light-curing, ultra-fine particle hybrid composite and successor of this material in class I and II cavities after 60 months.

Materials and methods

Forty patients (21 females, 19 males) with ages ranging between 18 and 38 years (23.15 ± 5.15) received 80 (13 Cl I and 67 Cl II) resin composite restorations (Charisma/Charisma Classic, Kulzer GmbH) in combination with an etch and rinse adhesive system (Gluma 2Bond) under rubber dam isolation. Two experienced operators performed all the restorations. Restorations were evaluated by the other two examiners according to the FDI criteria at baseline and at 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48 and 60 months. Surface characteristics of one restoration selected randomly were examined under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) at each recall. Data were analyzed statistically (p < 0.05).


After 60 months, recall rate was 90%. None of the restorations failed. Three restorations from Charisma and 4 from the Charisma Classic group showed minor surface staining. Twelve Charisma and 14 Charisma Classic restorations were scored as 2 for margin staining. Four restorations from both groups showed minor shade deviations but no significant difference was observed between the two restorative materials for any criteria evaluated after 60 months (p > 0.05). SEM evaluations were in accordance with the clinical findings.


Both materials exhibited clinically similar and successful performance over the 60-month observation period.

Clinical relevance

A new formulation of resin composite may not always perform better clinical performances.

Trial registration NCT02888873

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Comparison of marginal adaptation of Class II cavities restored with bulk‑fill and conventional composite resins using different universal bonding agent application strategies


Background: This in vitro study was conducted to compare the effect of universal bonding
application strategy (i.e., self‑etch and etch‑and‑rinse) on marginal adaptation of bulk‑fill and
conventional composite resins in Class II restorations.
Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study sixty sound premolars extracted for orthodontic
reasons were selected. The samples were allocated to four groups based on the universal bonding
application strategy (self‑etch and etch and rinse) and type of composite (bulk‑fill and conventional).
In each group, boxes were prepared with a depth of 4 mm on the mesial surfaces. Finally, the marginal
adaptation of the samples was evaluated under a stereomicroscope. Two‑way ANOVA was used
to compare the marginal adaptation data in the study. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05.
Results: Considering the type of universal bonding application strategy, there was a statistically
significant difference in marginal adaptation. Etch‑and‑rinse strategy showed better marginal
adaptation compared to self‑etch strategy (P < 0.001). However, there was no statistically significant
difference in marginal adaptation between the two composite resins (P = 0.829). Furthermore, the
interaction between the two factors (type of universal bonding application strategy and type of
composite resin) was not statistically significant (P = 0.629).
Conclusion: Etch‑and‑rinse bonding application strategy in both the bulk‑fill and conventional
composite resins exhibited better marginal adaptation compared to self‑etch bonding application
strategy. However, the difference of marginal adaptation between the two types of composite
resins (bulk and conventional) was not significant.

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Study of antibacterial and antifungal efficacy of platelet-rich fibrin and platelet-rich fibrin matrix

Nagaraja S, Mathew S, Jain N, Jethani B, Nambiar S, Kumari M, Nair S. Study of antibacterial and antifungal efficacy of platelet-rich fibrin and platelet-rich fibrin matrix. J Conserv Dent [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Aug 5];22:415-9. Available from:

Background: Platelet concentrates are extensively utilized in the medical and dental field to promote tissue regeneration. The profusion of endogenous growth factors in platelets α-granules transmit their use for enhanced wound healing. However, little attention has been given to study their antimicrobial potential. This study was conducted to assess the antibacterial and antifungal property of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) and PRF matrix (PRFM).

Materials and Methodology: Blood samples were obtained from 16 participants, PRF and PRFM were processed as per the protocol prescribed by Choukroun et al. and Lucarelli et al., respectively. The susceptibility test against microbiota in the root canal and Candida albicans was assessed through minimum inhibition zone by agar diffusion technique.
Results: PRF showed an effective antibacterial property, however, did not perform well against C. albicans strains. PRFM did not show any antibacterial or antifungal properties.
Conclusions: The antibacterial efficacy of PRF may prove beneficial when used in the revascularization procedure of immature necrotic teeth.

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Standardization of a cone beam computed tomography machine in evaluating bone density: a novel approach

. 2020 Aug 3.

doi: 10.23736/S0026-4970.20.04347-2. Online ahead of print.


Background: Advent of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) in dentistry has brought us to a new era of precise imaging. Radiographic evaluation of a CBCT image is more informational when compared to CT. The density measurements in CBCT images are based on greyscale values, which are more accurate in CT and these values are inconsistent across various CBCT machines. Hence, we aim at standardizing a single CBCT scanner to evaluate or determine tissue density from the greyscale values.

Methods: A total of 8 halves of undamaged, dry goat mandibles are included in the study. Scans of the bone are obtained using the KODAK CBCT unit and the PHILLIPS CT machine respectively. Densities are evaluated at 96 points on both the CT scans and the CBCT scans, respectively, using the Radiant Dicom viewer. The obtained data is entered into the excel spreadsheet and subjected to statistical analysis.

Results: The greyscale values are obtained from each of the CBCT scans. Hounsfield units are calculated from CT images coinciding with the same points on CBCT scans. The collected data is subjected to linear regression analysis and an equation is derived to determine Hounsfield units (calculated HU units) from greyscale values of CBCT images. We found no significant difference between the mean original HU units and the mean calculated HU units, thus making the equation reliable for calculating HU units from CBCT greyscale values.

Conclusions: Our results conclude that the technique was effective in calculating the Original density of tissues using grey standards of CBCT scans.

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