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Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) has gained tremendous momentum in recent years as a natural autologous growth factor derived from blood capable of stimulating tissue regeneration. Owing to its widespread use, many companies have commercialized various centrifugation devices with various proposed protocols. The aim of the present study was to compare 3 different commercially available centrifuges at both high and low g-force protocols.
Materials and methods
PRF was produced on three commercially available centrifuges including the IntraSpin Device (IntraLock), the Duo Quattro (Process for PRF), and Salvin (Salvin Dental). Two separate protocols were tested on each machine including the original leukocyte and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) protocol (~ 700 RCF max (~ 400 RCF clot) for 12 min) as well as the advanced platelet-rich fibrin (A-PRF+) protocol (~ 200 g RCF max (~ 130 g RCF clot) for 8 min). Each of the tested groups was compared for cell numbers, growth factor release, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for morphological differences, and clot size (both weight and length/width).
The present study found that PRF clots produced utilizing the low-speed centrifugation speeds (~ 200 g for 8 min) produce clots that (1) contained a higher concentration of evenly distributed platelets, (2) secreted higher concentrations of growth factors over a 10 day period, and (3) were smaller in size. This was irrespective of the centrifugation device utilized and consistently observed on all 3 devices. The greatest impact was found between the protocols utilized (up to a 200%). Interestingly, it was further revealed that the centrifugation tubes used had a much greater impact on the final size outcome of PRF clots when compared to centrifugation devices. It was found that, in general, the Process for PRF tubes produced significantly greater-sized clots when compared to other commercially available tubes. The Salvin Dental tubes also produced significantly greater PRF clots when compared to the IntraLock tubes on each of the tested centrifugation devices.
The present study demonstrated the reproducibility of a scientific concept (reduction in RCF produces PRF clots with more evenly distributed cells and growth factors) utilizing different devices. Furthermore, (and until now overlooked), it was revealed for the first time that the centrifugation tubes are central to the quality production of PRF. Future research investigating tube characteristics thus becomes critically important for the future optimization of PRF.
This is the first study to reveal the marked impact of centrifugation tubes on the final production of PRF. Future study thus becomes markedly important to further optimize the quality of PRF-based matrices. It was further found that little variability existed between the centrifugation devices if optimized centrifugation protocols (lower centrifugation speeds) were utilized.
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